The population of Indonesia is a mix of the indigenous population and those who arrived in the Neolithic period (3000 – 2000 years before Christ). These people came from the Asian mainland. Today, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. The nationality of the citizens of Indonesia is known as Indonesians. They became known as that after 17 August 1945 when Indonesia gained its independence.
Religion and language
Indonesia is a country where approximately 87% are Muslims. The rest are 6% Protestant, 3% Roman Catholic, 2% Hindu, 1% Buddhist and 1% have another religion.
The official language is Bahasa Indonesian (a modified form of Malay). At school the students learn English and on the streets they speak a little English. Some people (the older ones) still speak Dutch, after the colonial era. Otherwise, there are many different languages in the country. Of the total population, approximately 92.81% can read and write. This figure is increasing.
In 2010, the population of Indonesia was 237,641,326 people according to the official census (a 2015 unofficial census estimates the population to have grown to 255.4 million). About 58% of the population lives on the island of Java, making it the world’s most populous island.
25% were aged between 0 – 14 years, 68% were between 15 – 64 years and 7% were 65 years or older. Population growth in 2010 was 1.49%. Although Indonesia is a large country with over 200 million inhabitants, it only provides a population density of approximately 100 people per square kilometer.
The population increase in the number of births is on the way down and there are 16.20 births per 1000 people (2010). The death rate is 6.5 per 1,000 people (2010). The infant mortality rate is 22.7 deaths per 1,000 live births (2010).
The average life expectancy at birth is 73 years, where the man can expect to be 70.4 years old and the woman can expect to be 75.7 years old.
There are many ethnic divisions in Indonesia. Where initially most came from their respective islands. But due to previous projects to move people from the most overpopulated islands, as well as people’s desire to move where the jobs are, the ethnic groups are now found over most of the archipelago. Of the total population, 42% are Javanese, 15% Sundanese, 3.45% Madurese, 3.45% are Malays from the coast and the rest belong to other ethnic minor groups.